Searching for: "Aristotle"

  • Aristotle

    Aristotle's Poetics (Greek: ???? ?????????; Latin: De Poetica) is the earliest surviving work of dramatic theory and first extant philosophical treatise to focus on literary theory. In it, Aristotle offers an account of what he calls 'poetry' (a term that derives from a classical Greek term, ???????, that means 'poet; author; maker' and in this context includes verse drama - comedy, tragedy, and the satyr play - as well as lyric poetry and epic poetry). They are similar in the fact that they are all imitations but different in the three ways that Aristotle describes: Differences in music rhythm, harmony, meter and melody. Difference of goodness in the characters. Difference in how the...read more

  • Aristotle

    “How can men best live together?” Twenty-three centuries after its compilation, Politics still has much to contribute to this central question of political science. Aristotle’s thorough and carefully argued analysis covers a huge range of political issues in the effort to establish which types of constitution are best, both ideally and in particular circumstances, and how they may be maintained. Like his predecessor, Plato, Aristotle believed that the ideal constitution should be in accordance with nature, and that it is needed by man, “a political animal,” to fulfill his potential. His premises and arguments form an essential background to the thinking of...read more

  • Aristotle

    On the Soul (Greek Περὶ Ψυχῆς (Perì Psūchês), Latin De Anima) is a major treatise by Aristotle on the nature of living things. His discussion centres on the kinds of souls possessed by different kinds of living things, distinguished by their different operations. Thus plants have the capacity for nourishment and reproduction, the minimum that must be possessed by any kind of living organism. Lower animals have, in addition, the powers of sense-perception and self-motion (action). Humans have all these as well as intellect. The notion of soul used by Aristotle is only distantly related to the usual modern conception. He holds that the soul is the form, or essence of any living...read more

  • Aristotle

    Metaphysics is essentially a reconciliation of Plato’s theory of Forms that Aristotle acquired at the Academy in Athens, with the view of the world given by common sense and the observations of the natural sciences. According to Plato, the real nature of things is eternal and unchangeable. However, the world we observe around us is constantly and perpetually changing. Aristotle’s genius was to reconcile these two apparently contradictory views of the world. The result is a synthesis of the naturalism of empirical science, and the mysticism of Plato, that informed the Western intellectual tradition for more than two thousand years. At the heart of the book lie three questions. What is...read more

  • Aristotle

    The work consists of ten books, originally separate scrolls, and is understood to be based on notes said to be from his lectures at the Lyceum which were either edited by or dedicated to Aristotle's son, Nicomachus. In many ways this work parallels the similar Eudemian Ethics, which has only eight books, and the two works can be fruitfully compared. Books V, VI, and VII of the Nicomachean Ethics are identical to Books IV, V, and VI of the Eudemian Ethics. Opinions about the relationship between the two works, for example which was written first, and which originally contained the three common books, is divided. Aristotle describes his ethical work as being different from his other kinds of...read more

  • Aristotle

    The Sophistical Elenchi is the sixth of Aristotle's six texts on logic which are collectively known as the Organon ("Instrument"). In the Sophistical Elenchi Aristotle identifies 13 falacies. Verbal Fallacies are: Accent or Emphasis; Amphibology; Equivocation; Composition; Division and Figure of Speech. Material Fallacies are: Accident; Affirming the Consequent; Converse Accident; Irrelevant Conclusion; Begging the Question; False Cause and Fallacy of Many Questions. (Adapted from...read more

  • Aristotle

    "On Dreams" is part of Aristotle's Parva Naturalia, a collection of works on the phenomena of human life. In this treatise, he hypothesizes that we dream because our sensory organs continue to function while we sleep. He compares dreams to hallucinations-errors in our sense perception. Aristotle's view of dreams influenced philosopher Thomas Hobbes and psychologist Sigmund Freud, and it continues to fascinate readers...read more

  • Aristotle

    Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, a clinical method of treatment through dialogue. Modern thought owes him his theoretical description of the structure and functioning of the unconscious, through the discovery of the essential role of transference in the analytic process, the redefinition of sexuality including its infantile forms, the analysis of dreams, symptom formation and the mechanisms of repression. His ideas are still controversed, but his work has suffused the whole of Western thought. The idea of an ego who is not master in its own house shattered intellectual fundations, and its legacy are everywhere in our everyday life. We have selected for you 100 of the most...read more

  • Aristotle

    Aristotle’s influence on modern culture has become more and more important in recent years. His contribution to the sum of all wisdom dominates all our philosophy and even provides direction for much of our science. And all effective debaters, whether they know it or not, employ Aristotle’s three basic principles of effective argument, which form the spine of rhetoric: “ethos,” the impact of the speaker’s character upon the audience; “pathos,” the arousing of the emotions; and “logos,” the advancement of pertinent arguments. In his discussion, Aristotle observes several aspects of epic poetry, lyric poetry, and comedy. He maintains that...read more

  • Aristotle

    The Constitution of Athens (Greek: Ἀθηναίων πολιτεία) was written by Aristotle or his student. The text was lost until discovered in the late 19th century in Egypt. Topics discussed include Solon's legislative reforms abolishing debt slavery and the rise and decline of democracy and tyranny in Athens. (Summary by Geoffrey...read more

  • Aristotle

    Magna Moralia (Ancient Greek: ΗΟΙΚΩΝ ΜΕΓΑΛΩΝ, English: Great Ethics) discusses topics including friendship, virtue, happiness and God. It is disputed whether Aristotle wrote Magna Moralia. This author concludes that it is absurd to suggest that God contemplates only God but does not propose an alternative activity for God. (Summary by Geoffrey...read more

  • Aristotle

    Aristotle’s Poetics from the 4th century B.C. aims to give a short study of storytelling. It discusses things like unity of plot, reversal of situation, and character in the context of Greek tragedy, comedy and epic poetry. But it still applies today. It is especially popular with screenwriters as seen in many script gurus’ how-to books. (Summary by Robert...read more

  • Aristotle

    Posterior Analytics is the fourth of Aristotle's six texts on logic which are collectively known as the Organon ("Instrument"). Posterior Analytics deals with demonstration, definition, and scientific knowledge. Demonstration is distinguished as a syllogism productive of scientific knowledge, while Definition is marked as the statement of a thing's nature, a statement of the meaning of the name, or of an equivalent nominal formula. (Introduction adapted from...read more

  • Aristotle

    The Rhetoric was developed by Aristotle during two periods when he was in Athens, the first between 367 to 347 BCE (when he was seconded to Plato in the Academy), and the second between 335 to 322 BCE (when he was running his own school, the Lyceum). The Rhetoric consists of three books. Book I offers a general overview, presenting the purposes of rhetoric and a working definition; it also offers a detailed discussion of the major contexts and types of rhetoric. Book II discusses in detail the three means of persuasion that an orator must rely on: those grounded in credibility (ethos), in the emotions and psychology of the audience (pathos), and in patterns of reasoning (logos). Book III...read more

  • Aristotle

    The Constitution of Athens (Greek: Ἀθηναίων πολιτεία) was written by Aristotle or his student. The text was lost until discovered in the late 19th century in Egypt. Topics discussed include Solon's legislative reforms abolishing debt slavery and the rise and decline of democracy and tyranny in Athens. (Summary by Geoffrey...read more

  • Aristotle

    This Aristotelian treatise makes up part of the philosopher's Parva Naturalia, which is Latin for "short treatises on nature." In this text, he presents his ideas about the human senses. He connects each sense to an element-sight to water, touch to earth, etc. While Aristotle's view of the senses is scientifically inaccurate in many ways, this treatise is a fascinating read for anyone interested in learning more about how the ancients understood the...read more

  • Aristotle

    What we can learn about fostering innovation and creative thinking from some of the most inventive people of all times-the ancient Greeks. When it comes to innovation and creative thinking, we are still catching up with the ancient Greeks. Between 800 and 300 BCE, they changed the world with astonishing inventions-democracy, the alphabet, philosophy, logic, rhetoric, mathematical proof, rational medicine, coins, architectural canons, drama, lifelike sculpture, and competitive athletics. None of this happened by accident. Recognizing the power of the new and trying to understand and promote the conditions that make it possible, the Greeks were the first to write about innovation and even...read more

  • Aristotle

    The Art of Rhetoric, a guide on the principles behind oratorical skill, is a core text on the art of persuasion. Aristotle contends that rhetoric is one of the key elements of philosophy - along with logic and dialectic. The work consists of three books: the first is a general overview, the second concerns the means of persuasion that an orator must deploy, and the third discusses elements of style and arrangement. This recording also includes The Poetics, the earliest surviving work of dramatic theory, which has exerted a huge influence on Western drama and literature. It demonstrates how plot, character and spectacle can be combined to produce maximum impact in drama - and tragedy in...read more

  • Aristotle

    Eudemian Ethics (Greek: ΗΘΙΚΩΝ ΕΥΔΗΜΙΩΝ Latin: ETHICA EUDEMIA) discusses topics including virtue, friendship, happiness and God. It is believed to have been written before Nicomachean Ethics and to be named after Eudemus of Rhodes. Books IV, V, and VI of Eudemian Ethics are identical to books V, VI, and VII of Nicomachean Ethics and are excluded from this translation. (Summary by Geoffrey...read more

  • Aristotle

    I - On Sensation and the Sensible II - On Memory and Recollection III - On Sleeping and Waking IV - On Dreams V - On Prophecy in Sleep VI - On Longevity and Shortness of Life VII - On Youth and Old Age, Life and Death VIII - On Respiration ( Summary Adapted from...read more